All species of Cotesia produce courtship songs via wing fanning.
Video: This Cotesia congregata male is singing to an immobilized female. Note the pause before the high-amplitude wing strokes. This video was taken at 2000 fps and slowed to 30 fps. See Bredlau et al. 2013.
Oscillograph of typical male courtship song of Cotesia congregata with a buzz followed by boings. (A) Complete song. (B) Expanded selection of four boings illustrating the initial high amplitude component followed by a lower amplitude terminal buzz and short pause. Modified from Bredlau & Kester, 2015.
We recently published the songs of several more species of Cotesia and the evolutionary patterns among them.
Click on the waveform to hear the song.
Each waveform shows two seconds.